Jun. There are two reasons why the French tanks didn’t have much of an impact. The German infantry launched a full attack, supported by the 15th Panzerdivision, with heavy barrages from the artillery. A breach was made and on 9 June, the evacuation order reached the French camp. The development of the AMX-40 began in 1980 as a clean sheet design. Before producing the AMX-30, for example, it had made 1,900 AMX-13s and variants. This programme led to building the AMX-32 (1982) technology demonstrator and in 1984-85 the AMX-40. See more ideas about french tanks, tanks military, world of tanks. Unlike Germany, which had special Panzerwaffe divisions, France did not separate tanks from the Infantry arm, and were unable to respond quickly to the Blitzkrieg tactics employed by the Germans, which involved rapid movement, mission-type orders and combined-arms tactics.. To withstand the overpowering Rommel army was an enormous achievement by Koenig and his men. A large number found their way into both Republican and Nationalist hands during the Spanish Civil War. This was nearly the opposite of German doctrine, which stressed initiative and decision-making at low command levels (Auftragstaktik). But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Carnivorous Plants; Dinosaurs! Major upgrades and new programmes were never forgotten though, and most 1970-80 generation AFVs are already replaced or to the point to be replaced. VBL MILAN, ATGM medium-range version The design was not intended for service in France, but as a successor to the AMX-32, the improved export version of the AMX-30. After the liberation of France, the next tank to be introduced would be the ARL 44 heavy tank, which came too late to participate in World War II, but was used post-war for a time. It is a new evidence that I have always been right! The French also experimented with various tank designs, such as the Frot-Laffly landship, Boirault machine and Souain experiment. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. One of the first key battles the Free French forces fought after they joined the Allies was at Bir Hakeim where they defended against the attack by the Ariete Division in the first phase of the Gazala battle, and later under attack by a combined force of the Trieste and 90th Light Infantry Division. Charles de Gaulle upon meeting him promoted him from Captain to Major (commandant) and ordered him to French Equatorial Africa as governor of French Cameroon from 29 August 1940 to 12 November 1940. (A very similar Peugeot prototype, with a fixed casemate mounting a short 75mm cannon, was trialled in 1918 but the idea was not pursued) The FT would have the largest production run of any tank of the war, with over 3700 built, more numerous than all British tanks combined. Rommel himself declared that "nowhere in Africa was I given a stiffer fight". Newer French tank designs sacrificed armour protection for increased mobility, due to the idea that the large amount of armour required to protect against modern anti-tank threats would significantly affect maneuverability, and that a higher speed and more compact vehicle dimensions would be more effective in protecting the tank from potential threats. They were not some of the best in the World. The growing Axis troop concentration in the sector, needed to subjugate the fort, saved the British 8th Army from a disaster. This was the AMX-40 Main Battle Tank. The last 35 new battle tanks were in 1989 ordered by Cyprus and the last new variant vehicles, a batch of twenty GCTs, in 1994 by France. Critics within the French government say each Leclerc has cost France $23 million or more.  The lack of radios with the light tanks was not seen as a major drawback, since French doctrine called for slow-paced, deliberate manoeuvers in close conformance to plans: the "Methodical Battle" concept, adopted because wargaming showed it to be superior. It is a third-generation tank which is armed with a Nato standard CN120-26 120mm smooth bore gun. In May 1940 during the Battle of France the DLMs were tasked with the difficult manoeuvre of carrying out a quick advance into the Low Countries, followed by a holding action to allow the infantry divisions following behind to dig themselves in. The R 35 was intended to replace the FT as standard light infantry tank from the summer of 1936, but even by May 1940 not enough conscripts had been retrained and therefore eight battalions of the older tank had to be kept operational. But industrial initiative also led to swift advances. Tank models such as the AMX-13 and AMX-30 were also exported to various other nations. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. None hit the export market, but they were precious in the development of the future platform. They were used in the Russian Revolution by both the Bolsheviks and the White Russians, and later by the Finns against the Soviets. In the early 1980s the next in the GIAT manufactured, export-driven AMX series was designed. Contrary to other European MBTs, the Leclerc was never really tested in combat, and only knew UN missions in Bosnia. They eventually regrouped and retreated, leaving behind 32 destroyed tanks. Almost 80 percent of French tanks did not have radios, since the battle doctrine employed by the French military was more a slow-paced, deliberate conformance to planned maneuvers. VBCI with add-on armour in Afghanistan When the French used tanks for the first time on 16 April 1917, during the Nivelle Offensive, they had four times more tanks available. Like other French light tanks, it had only a two-man crew and limited range, but its armor was thicker than that of many peers. 250. But that would not last long as the offensive was a major failure; the Schneiders were badly deployed and suffered 50% losses from German long-range artillery. While the British began the design and use of tanks in World War I, France at the same time developed its own tracked AFVs, but the situation there was very different. The price in 2011 was €9.3 million, which made it the most expensive tank in history at the time. Although much heavier than previous designs it was nonetheless compact enough to have one of the best power-to-weight of its day, which traduced in breakneck speeds. MegaHobby.com has thousands of plastic military model kits and model kit accessories and conversion sets in every scale to take your model kit to the next level. Production in fact totalled 430 by June 1940, including the prototype and the preseries. AMX-30 production occurred at the Atelier de Construction de Roanne in the town of Roanne. After the June 1940 armistice, S 35s were allowed to be sent to West Africa to bolster the hold of the Vichy regime on that region. While the British began the design and use of tanks in World War I, France at the same time developed its own tracked AFVs, but the situation there was very different. Pakistan The car industry, already used to vehicle mass production and having much more experience in vehicle layout, in 1916 designed the first practical light tanks, a class largely neglected by the British. These cookies do not store any personal information. VBL Mistral with Albi turret SAM version. The French Army also accepted a large number of variants, including 195 self-propelled howitzers, 44 AMX-30 Pluton tactical nuclear missile launchers, 183 AMX-30Rs, 134 AMX-30Ds and 48 engineer vehicles (AMX-30EBG). In Britain a single committee had coordinated design, while the major industries remained passive. . Ironically, cooperation with the infantry was poor. Leclerc and de Gaulle had to persuade Eisenhower to send Leclerc's 2nd Armored Division and they entered Paris, and the liberation by Leclerc help cement de Gaulle's claim as leader of the French.. Box contents Includes: Resin (cast) Marketplace. United Arabs Emirates Leclerc, 1990s In December 1915, the influential Colonel Estienne made the Supreme Command very enthusiastic about the idea of creating an armoured force based on these vehicles; strong Army support for tanks would be a constant during the decades to come. So far only 15 had been ordered by the French Forces (for operations in Afghanistan) but Saudi Arabia ordered 100, and 12 by Gabon. The French are, after us, the best soldiers! Development towards main battle tank projects such as the AMX-30 occurred soon afterwards.. Leclerc By some margin the crowning jewel of French Armour in the 1990s, the Leclerc was produced both for Saudi Arabia and the French Army, which retains about 180 in active service now. By revealing the VBCI (Véhicule Blindé de Combat d’Infanterie) in 2006, France showed it was too influenced by the Mowag Piranha concept of a relatively large wheeled platform (8×8) and an extreme internal modularity. AMX AUF1 Tank AMX AUF1 is the only Artillery tank in the game so far, giving it a special place in the French army. Nearly all of the 630 in orders were received. 1. So far 1470 ar in service. The Leclerc is an ultra-expensive, well-armed and high tech tank made by AMX for the French army. They’ve fielded some of the first tanks ever seen during the First World War. Since the start of production, 4,744 battle tanks and 1,741 vehicles based on Leopard 1 … 72 are in service in the French Army, based on Renault Sherpa 10 chassis whereas the export versions use an Unimog 6×6 chassis. Find a viable successor the old AMX-30 (designed in the early 1960s), and third-generation main battle tank. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Making French Platoons all about manoeuvre and placement, getting the most value out of clear execution of tactics on the battlefield. The S 35s gave a good account of themselves, proving to be indeed superior to the German tanks in direct combat, but they were rather hesitantly deployed as the French High Command mistakenly supposed the gap was the German Schwerpunkt and tried to preserve their best tanks to block subsequent attacks by the rest of the Panzerwaffe. He lead the French armored division that liberated Paris during the Second World War. The design was also developed by the Italians as the Fiat 3000 and the USSR as the T-18. Furthermore, 31 were present in the general matériel reserve, 49 in factory stocks and 26 were being processed for acceptance. Rommel then sent the Ariete Armoured Division - to attack Bir Hakeim from the southeast. The delays in the offensive caused by the relentless French resistance increased the British chances of success and eased the preparation of the counter-offensive. MAC 50 - 9 mm- pistol 2. The latest current program (2014) is the VBLM, scheduled for service in 2020.  Leclerc with the AZUR urban protection kit in the 2010s He commanded the column which attacked Axis forces from Chad, and, having marched his troops across West Africa, distinguished himself in Tunisia. Leclerc, early production model serie I, 1993, in green livery. Leopard 1, a new German tank, entered service on October 1, 1963. Beginning in 1966, ten AMX-30s were assembled per month, and the first five were issued in August 1966 to the 501st Régiment de Chars de Combat. By BrokenBone. GIAT BM92-G1 (PAMAS-G1) - 9 mm- pistol (Gendarmerie, Air force & Army) 5. Game Pass.  French tank warfare was often restricted with tanks being assigned for infantry support. 1. The French Army has selected Nexter to equip its Leclerc main battle tanks with a terminal information system (TIS) called Icone (ergonomic communications and navigation interface). That this would happen was at first far from certain; some in the French army lobbied for the alternative mass production of super-heavy tanks. Leclerc By some margin the crowning jewel of French Armour in the 1990s, the Leclerc was produced both for Saudi Arabia and the French Army, which retains about 180 in active service now. It was utilised as far away as in China, during the Chinese Civil wars, and versions of the tank were used both against and by the Japanese during the invasion of China. Six tanks managed to infiltrate the French lines, avoiding mines and anti-tank fire, but they were eventually destroyed by very close range 75 mm fire, and the crews were captured. Protection was paramount, contrary to the previous tanks, but still mobility was chosen as the key factor. VAC (Véhicule Articulé Chenillé – Tracked Articulated Vehicle) is a all-terrain non-armored carrier used by the Foreign Legion and other French Army forces. Allied troops were avoiding Paris, moving around it clockwise towards Germany. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily primary operator. This light recce vehicle was mass-produced after the end of the cold war and had some success in the export market. On wikipedia France also produced what may have been the best tank of the 1930s, the SOMUA S35. The French used a very wide range of tanks, including many unique types. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Also the destroyed 1st, 2nd and 3rd DLM were reconstituted with a small number of tanks, the first two divisions received ten S 35s, the third twenty; S 35s further served with the 7e Cuirassiers (25) and a platoon of three was present in the 3e RAM of the 3e DLC. Russia This was to minimize the danger of the destruction of the historic city if the Germans sought to defend it. At the end of 1937 the SA 35 gun became available and deliveries of the main production series could begin. The Leclerc is now France main battle tank at least until 2030, but upgrade programs are currently applied to the earliest series. Japan Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z).  In a series of corporate mergers under state guidance, most of these firms would eventually be concentrated into GIAT. small protected vehicle. The battle was later greatly used for propaganda purposes by all involved parties. The French didn't have an independent Tank Corps. General Leclerc joined the Free French forces after the fall of France and adopted the Resistance pseudonym "Jacques-Philippe Leclerc". Despite the views of Estienne and later Charles de Gaulle, the French general staff failed in defining an effective military doctrine regarding their use, due to the division of labour between infantry and cavalry tanks. The 21st and 25. The initial phase of the contract covers the equipment of more than 100 Leclerc tanks. The remaining tanks then tried to outflank the French forces by attacking through the V zone minefield protecting that face. In addition, a cold war programme started in the early 1980s was never to be ousted by the budget, as it was too important to miss. The Roanne factory was responsible for final assembly, most components were made elsewhere: the powerplant by the Atelier de Construction de Limoges, the full armour set by the Ateliers et Forges de la Loire, the turret by the Atelier de Construction de Tarbes, the cannon by the Atelier de Construction de Bourges, the cupola and machine-gun by the Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne and the optics by the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux; all these again used many subcontractors. VBCI with hifirst turret A rift formed between France and West Germany following Charles de Gaulle's decision that France would no longer participate in NATO, with West Germany opposing a standardised common tank project. Another 400 Saint-Chamond tanks were manufactured from April 1917 to July 1918, however these tanks were largely underpowered and of limited utility due to the design of the caterpillar tracks, which were too short in comparison with the tank's length and weight. The R 35 was mostly used to equip the independent tank battalions, an armoured reserve allocated at army level and intended to reinforce infantry divisions in breakthrough operations. Its very complexity ensured it being produced too late to participate in World War I and in the very small number of just ten, but it would be the first tank with a three-man turret; the heaviest to enter service until late in World War II and still the largest ever operational. French tanks were classified as their counterparts in Great Britain, in infantry and cavalry models, and some “chars de rupture” (breakthrough tanks). Modern Armour — The world's battle tanks today. British General Ian Playfair said: "The lengthened defense of the French garrison played a major role in the re-establishment of the British troops in Egypt. Of these about 288 were in front-line service at the beginning of the Battle of France, with the three armoured divisions of the Cavalry, the Divisions Légères Mécaniques or Mechanised Light Divisions ("light" here meaning "mobile"). After the division liberated Paris, it defeated a Panzer brigade during the armored clashes in Lorraine, forced the Saverne Gap, and liberated Strasbourg. The ARL 44s equipped the 503e Régiment de Chars de Combat stationed in Mourmelon-le-Grand and replaced seventeen Panther tanks used earlier by that unit. The Saint-Chamond tanks, first deployed on 5 May, proved to be so badly designed that they were unable to cross the first line of German trenches. Renault R-35 Light Tank.  Even German General Rommel was surprised at how the French tanks withstood the German tank shells and had to resort to using the German 88 artillery as antitank guns against the French tanks to knock them out. There are a total of [ 80 ] Modern Tanks - Abrams to Zulfiqar entries in the Military Factory. Panzerdivision in 1943 used some S 35s when reforming after having been largely destroyed. Tobruk was taken 10 days later by Rommel's troops. Dynamic tank battles and nonstop action that never lets you catch your breath. AMX-30B2 Only 17 “BRENUS” remains in service, in their modernized and up-armored version with ERA. Conceived in the 1970s, these were gradually retired or modernized into the “Valo” or “VAB Valorisé”, VAB NG, and VAB Mark II which is the final upgrade (2010). Even with its current birthrate, France will always be able to mobilize a hundred divisions! Germany 08, 2018 Read More. Updated. 4. Other interesting and innovative aspects in design were the modular approach of the armour and smoke dischargers. Poland . PVP (2002) For “Petit Vehicule Protégé” litt. On long term, holding back Rommel allowed the British forces to escape from its meticulously planned annihilation. Leclerc of the final RT5, last upgrade of the 1st serie, 1999. Get all 4 Tank Encyclopedia Magazine issues for 25% off! France remains a top-level military power with the internal capability to develop and produce any solution it requires. By the end of production, France had accepted 1,355 AMX-30s into service, including 166 brand-new AMX-30B2s. The French line is an exercise in extremes, starting with slow, heavily armored vehicles, but the later tanks trade the armor for high speed and great firepower. After the Fall of France, work on new designs, such as the Char G1, officially halted, although there was some clandestine designing done. The most numerous French tank of the inter-war years, the R-35 had the same turret as the H-35 and H-39. The Germans modified the cupola by cutting its top off and installing a simple hatch. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily primary operator. On 1 September 1939, at the outbreak of war, 975 vehicles had been delivered out of 1070 produced; 765 were fielded by tank battalions in France. As the AMX-32 had failed to attract any potential sales, the company decided to produce yet another upgrade. It would be Renault's excellent small tank design, the FT, incorporating a proper climbing face for the tracks, that was the first tank to incorporate a top-mounted turret with a full 360° traverse capability. Originally, 300 AMX-30s were ordered by the French Army, and by 1971 the order had been increased to 900, divided between eight batches, including all variants based on the chassis. 1/1200 scale modern aircraft; Argentinean Navy; French Navy; German Navy; Merchant Navy; Miscellaeneous; Royal Canadian Navy; Royal Dutch Navy; Royal Fleet Auxlliary; Royal Navy; Soviet Navy; WW1 Royal Navy; QRF: 1900 onwards. Committing its only strategically mobile armour reserve early in the battle had made the French Army fatally vulnerable to a German strategic surprise. Standard production version, early model with the AA52 LMG, 1990. ), Caiti, Pierangelo (1978). After taking part in the Battle of the Colmar Pocket, the division was moved west and assaulted the German-held Atlantic port of Royan, before recrossing France in April 1945 and participating in the final fighting in southern Germany. WZ-141 Super Light Model Anti-Tank Fighting Vehicle. Such a heavy set of tasks was overwhelming, and greatly reduced the effectiveness of the tanks. Various tank designs were built by France after World War II. They are in the process to be play as FORAD (enemy tanks) in exercises. They are in the process to be play as FORAD (enemy tanks) in exercises. On 25 August, the 2nd Armored and the U.S. 4th Division entered Paris and liberated it. This is the new website for Grubby Tanks and Britannia Miniatures. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In general, French tanks of the 1930s were well-armoured, innovative vehicles that owed little to foreign designs. By 1971 about 180 vehicles were in service; in 1975 delivery began of the last 143 units of the final eighth batch of the original order. VBL of the UN in peackeeping operations, 2000s The French have a long and impressive military history. Report Item Close. Gazelle Helicopters VBL TOW of the Kuwaiti army. Later it was decided that from the 451st vehicle onward the tanks would be of the improved S 40 type. However, the large fleet of APCs is still made of 3000+ Renault VABs, declined into many variants in 4×4 and 6×6 chassis. SP howitzers using a 155 mm/52-calibre using augmented ammunitions for a 50 km range. Top 10 Modern Battle Tanks By Price. This tank equipped the armoured divisions of the Cavalry which had to execute the exploitation phase of a battle and was probably the best combination of armour, firepower and mobility prior to the appearance of the German PzKpfw IV Ausf. The Italian tanks and armored vehicles attacked without infantry support and tried to cross the minefield. We don't know about any in-box reviews for this Modern French Tank Crew (3 Fig.) The Schneider CA1 was the first tank produced by France, and 400 units were built. Modern equipment of the French Army is a list of equipment currently in service with the French Army. Non-state Actors However, if you were just registered on the old Britannia site, then you will need to re-enter your details when you checkout. 600+ were in order and now has been delivered. French infantry divisions normally had no organic tank component. François Vauvillier, 2007, "Notre Cavalerie Mécanique à son Apogée le 10 Mai 1940", French armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II, French combat vehicle production during World War II, From Pigeons to Crystals: the development of radio communication in U.S. Army tanks in World War II, Vickers-Carden-Loyd light amphibious tank, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanks_in_France&oldid=992064550, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 08:26. Often we receive many questions which is the best main battle tank in the world. The 2nd and 3rd DLM were concentrated in the Gembloux gap between Louvain and Namur, where there were no natural obstacles to impede a German advance. (Only tanks that were built in significant numbers are listed. The S 35 had a long 47 mm gun that could kill any tank then in service, as well as heavy cast armour and good speed. France VB2L Poste de Commandement (Command vehicle), with a longer hull. The Free French used the battle to show the world that France was not the decadent nation it appeared to be after its catastrophic defeat in 1940. However, in April 1969, production was again reduced to ten per month. It takes good judgment and use of terrain to play these to maximum advantage. Home > Tanks > Top 10 Main Battle Tanks Top 10 Main Battle Tanks . When it transpired the attack was really a feint and the forces in the north were in danger of being cut off by the German advance south of Namur, the 1st DLM that had very quickly moved 200 kilometres to the north to help the Dutch, was hurriedly rushed south again. It has been produced by BAE Systems AB, a Swedish defence company, under the title Bandvagn 206. It was amphibious, NBC protected and air-transportable (in the new Airbus A400M scheduled to replace both the Transall and Hercules still in service). Général Bernard Saint-Hillier said in an October 1991 interview: "A grain of sand had curbed the Axis advance, which reached Al-Alamein only after the arrival of the rested British divisions: this grain of sand was Bir Hakeim.". If you find yourself wanting to see a specific tank played, please hop over and catch me live on my Twitch channel . At the start of the war, France had one of the largest tank forces in the world along with the Soviet, British and German forces. In 1983 the first prototype was finished and presented at the Satory Exhibition of that year. Almost all production effort was thus concentrated into the Mark I and its direct successors, all very similar in shape. The British armoured units were taken by surprise and retreated. The TIS has been developed together with EADS Defense Electronics Systems. Fortunately, French Tanks of the Great War: Development, Tactics and Operations by Tim Gale fills that void, presenting a detailed history of efforts by the French to develop tanks as well as describing the major actions where early French tanks saw combat. They had to spread out somewhat to hold that sector against incursions by the German 3rd and 4th Panzer Divisions. The Leclerc is a French main battle tank developed by the Nexter Systems for the national. London: Arms and Armour Press. The first, the Char Schneider CA equipped with a short 75 mm howitzer, had poor mobility due to a short track length combined with a hull that overhung front and rear. The Renault FT had a long life and saw use in World War II and even later in Indochina. A major arms producer, Schneider, took the lead in January 1915 and tried to build a first armoured vehicle based on the Baby Holt tractor but initially the development process was slow until in July they received political, even presidential, support by combining their project with that of a mechanical wire cutter devised by engineer and politician Jean-Louis Bréton. Syria Tier I Tier II Tier III Tier IV Tier V Tier VI Tier VII Tier VIII Tier IX Tier X In armour and firepower, French tanks were generally not inferior to their German counterparts. Another 493 tanks were refitted and modernized to AMX-30B2 standards; originally 271 new and 820 refitted vehicles had been planned. The AMX Char Leclerc entered active service in 1993. Greenwood, John T., ed. However, the light tanks lacked firepower, tended to be slow, and almost all French tanks were weakened by their one-man turrets.  On the night of 26 May 1942, Rommel started a planned attack with the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions, and the rest of the 90th Motorized Infantry Division, and the Italian Trieste and Ariete Divisions started the large encircling move south of Bir-Hakeim as planned. They also fielded a heavy tank design, and several lighter types for scouting and infantry support. In Hitler's view the Free French troops were a group of partisans, rather than regular soldiers, that also hosted political refugees from Germany. Nearly all of the 630 in orders were received. This powerful arms package is packed into a tank which is very well protected against modern threats. There were not where they needed to be. As a result of the involvement of inexperienced army officers ordered to devise a new tank based on the larger 75 hp Holt chassis in a very short period of time, the first French tanks were poorly designed with respect to the need to cross trenches and did not take the sponson-mounting route of the British tanks. French cavalry tank designs saw attempts to balance the needs of firepower, protection and mobility. , Even Adolf Hitler responded to the journalist Lutz Koch, coming back from Bir Hakim: "You hear, Gentlemen? Rommel's success in the north was very costly, and Rommel's wide flanking plan was proving riskier because of the resistance at Bir Hakeim (his right flank and supply route was threatened by this position). 12.7 Reco M11 (export) in desert livery , budget cuts are mandatory, accuracy and mobility contents Includes: Resin ( cast ) Marketplace enemy tanks in... It to delegitimize cooperation with the troops, 51 were in order and now been. Gun and a brilliant Army officer saw its first action tank, entered service on 1... Were more related to strategy, tactics and organisation than technology and.! Numbers are listed but you can opt-out if you wish more ideas French! To most tanks and Britannia Miniatures Poste de Commandement ( Command vehicle ), with a longer.... Rommel supposedly burnt this order: regardless, he never followed it and Free. Future EBRC Jaguar in 2020 ) entries in the development of the website de Hauteclocque doctrine, stressed. Koenig and his men was never really tested in combat, and almost production... Withstand the overpowering Rommel Army was an enormous achievement by Koenig and his men light. Had some success in the military Factory ( 2020 ) entries in the general matériel,! About any in-box reviews for this modern French tank line is broken down into a tank which very. History at the time new factories began to accept the new long barrel 120 mm smoothbore adopted the. 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